Thursday, 01 October 2020

Lex Portus

Давидова І. В.

Вади волі в правочині як умова його недійсності: від римського права до сьогодення

Irina Davydova*

Faults of will in a deal as a condition of its invalidity: from the Roman law to present

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Suggested citation:

Давидова, І.В. (2018). Вади волі в правочині як умова його недійсності: від римського права до сьогодення. Lex Portus, 1, 144-152. https://doi.org/10.26886/2524-101X.1.2018.11

Davydova, I.V. (2018). Vady voli v pravochyni yak umova yoho nediisnosti: vid rymskoho prava do sohodennia [Faults of will in a deal as a condition of its invalidity: from the roman law to present]. Lex Portus, no. 1, 144-152. https://doi.org/10.26886/2524-101X.1.2018.11 [in Ukrainian].

*Irina Davydova. PhD in Law, Associate Professor of the Department of Civil Law of National University “Odessa Law Academy”, Docent (9, Akademichna St., Odessa, Ukraine)

 

ABSTRACT

In civil law the deal represents the unity of four elements: the subject, the content, the form and the will. The presence of the faults of will is more difficult to define and prove (in comparison with the faults of subject, content, form), because in practice it is difficult to determine the true will of individuals in the commission of a deal, because the will of human is its internal conviction; such concepts as deception, error, the nature of a serious circumstance, the degree of disadvantage of the conditions are evaluative and there are no clear criteria for determining these aspects. The will and expression of will in the deal need to correspond to each other, because it is the two sides of one process, namely the attitude of the person to the action which is being carried out by him. The analysis of the existing civil law makes it possible to attribute to deals with faults of will: deals, committed by a capable physical person, who at the time of his commission was not realizing the significance of his actions and (or) could not manage of them; deals which had been committed under the influence of errors; deals which had been committed under the influence of deception; deals which had been committed under the influence of violence; deals which had been committed under the influence of difficult circumstances; deals which had been committed as a result of the malicious agreement of a representative of the one side with the representative of another side. Today we are witnessing a situation as familiar to us (traditional) deals are transformed by introducing information technology in electronic contracts smart contracts, etc., which may be concluded by the parties without personal contact, paper copies of contracts, personal (handwritten) signature. This is a kind of new phase of development, a turning point that should take place not only in the field of technical provision of opportunities for such concluding deals, but also in the consciousness of each person. Therefore, it is extremely important to ensure the protection of civil rights and interests of civil actors, which, in particular, manifests in the recognition of invalid the deals of faults of will and application of the consequences of such invalidity.

The key words: transaction, will, expression оf the will, flaw in the will, invalidity of the transaction, mistake, bluff, violence, hard fact.

 

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Давидова І. В. Вади волі в правочині як умова його недійсності: від римського права до сьогодення. – Стаття.

У статті досліджується правова природа правочинів із вадами волі як недійсних правочинів. Розглядаються такі категорії, як “воля” та “волевиявлення”, визначаться їх місце та значення при укладанні правочинів. Аналізуються різні точки зору з даного питання. Констатується оскаржуваність цих правочинів у судовому порядку.

Ключові слова: правочин, воля, волевиявлення, вада волі, недійсність правочину, помилка, обман, насильство, тяжка обставина.

 

Давыдова И. В. Пороки воли в сделке как условие ее недействительности: от римского права до современности. – Статья.

В статье исследуется правовая природа сделок с пороками воли как недействительных сделок. Рассматриваются такие категории, как “воля” и “волеизъявление”, определяется их место и значение при заключении сделок. Анализируются разные точки зрения по данному вопросу. Констатируется оспариваемость этих сделок в судебном порядке.

Ключевые слова: сделка, воля, волеизъявление, порок воли, недействительность сделки, ошибка, обман, насилие, тяжелое обстоятельство.

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Ukraine, Odesa, Fontanska Doroga, 23
National University “Odessa Academy of Law”,
Department of Maritime and Customs Law

Executive Secretary: Averochkina Tetiana, Doctor of Law, Senior researcher, Associate Professor, Head of the Laboratory of the Department of Maritime and Customs Law of the National University "Odessa Law Academy".

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