Неділя, 17 жовтня 2021

Current Issue

Lex Portus 7(4)' 2021

Minas Arakelian*

Daria Ivanova**

Viacheslav Tuliakov***

A Category “Public Order” and Limitations on Party Autonomy in Contracts for the Carriage of Passengers by Sea

Full text PDF [EN]

Suggested citation:

Arakelian, M., Ivanova, D., Tuliakov, V. (2021). A Category “Public Order” and Limitations on Party Autonomy in Contracts for the Carriage of Passengers by Sea. Lex Portus, 7(4), 28-56. https://doi.org/10.26886/2524-101X.7.4.2021.2

*Doctor of Law, Professor, National University “Odessa Law Academy” (23, Fontanska Doroga, Odessa, Ukraine)

**PhD in Law, National University “Odessa Law Academy” (23, Fontanska Doroga, Odessa, Ukraine)

***Doctor of Law, Professor, National University “Odessa Law Academy” (23, Fontanska Doroga, Odessa, Ukraine)



This article attempts to research the purpose, the meaning and the essence of the category “public order” in the legal regulation and practice of law enforcement in the sphere of passengers’ sea shipping. In the first part of the article, the authors consider the role of the public (imperative) element in the legal regulation of passengers’ sea shipping. It is paid attention to the significant segment of the state and the supranational administrative regulation in the modern legal basis of such shipping. It gets a manifestation in consolidating the possibilities of imperative influence on the system of private legal relations, including relations, complicated by a foreign element, particular on the sphere of passengers’ sea shipping. In the second part of the article, the authors applied to the definition of the correlation connections of the category “public order” with the related legal categories “law and order”, “civil order”, “world order”, made the distinction between the categories “order” and “regime”. It is emphasized the attention on the legal regime is a process aimed at establishing public order. The third part of the article is devoted to brief research of the international public order in the projection on the problems of passengers’ sea shipping. It is laid emphasis on the attempt of the world community to form a legal basis for countering illegal actions in the maritime spaces that violate the established international public order, aimed at reservation and protecting health and lives of people. It is noted that the sphere of human rights allows emphasizing more clearly the limits of the institute “public order”, which remains underestimated in the Ukrainian doctrine of international private law. Finally, the authors examine the public order clause as one of the leading institutes of the international private law and the relevant legislation of most modern states. It is emphasized the lack of a definition of the category of “public order” under the conditions of the proper regulation in the laws of the relevant clause.

The key words: sea shipping, passengers, public order, clause, imperative norms, super-imperative norms.


Alekseev, S.S. (1989). General permissions and general prohibitions in Soviet law. Yurid. lit. [in Russian].

Alekseev, S.S. (1995). Theory of the law. BEK Publishing House. [in Russian].

Allison, S. (2014). Choice of Law and Forum Clauses in Shipping Documents – Revising Section 11 of The Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1991 (CTH). Monash University Law Review, 40, 3, 639-672.

Babaev, V.K., Baranov, V.M., & Gojman, V.I. (1992). Dictionary of categories and concepts of the general theory of law. W.p. [in Russian].

Bagan-Kurluta, K. (2019). The Role of the Public Order Clause in Modern Cases Concerning Children: The Polish Example. International Journal of the Jurisprudence of the Family, 9. https://ssrn.com/abstract=3361185

Cassese, S. (2012). New paths for administrative law: A manifesto. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 10, 3, 603-613. DOI: 10.1093/icon/mos038

Congress of Venezuela. (1998, August, 6). Private International Law Statute. https://www.refworld.org/pdfid/4c45af962.pdf

Davydenko, D.L. (2009). Ten interesting points about “public policy” (ordre public) in international private and civil law. https://pravo.ru/interpravo/news/view/20972/ [in Russian].

Dmitrieva, G.K. (2010). International private law. Prospekt. [in Russian].

Fernandez, J. (2021). Jurisdiction and Arbitration Agreements in Contracts for the Carriage of Goods by Sea: Limitations on Party Autonomy. Informa Law from Routledge.

IMO. (1974, December 13). Athens Convention relating to the Carriage of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea. http://library.arcticportal.org/1700/1/Athens_convention_compilation.pdf

IMO. (1988, March 10). Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf. https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/Volume%201678/v1678.pdf

IMO Assembly. (2009, December, 2). Code of practice for the investigation of crimes of piracy and armed robbery against ships. https://wwwcdn.imo.org/localresources/en/OurWork/Security/Documents/A.1025.pdf

IMO Assembly. (1985, November 20). А.584(14). Measures to prevent unlawful acts which threaten the safety of ships and the security of their passengers and crews. https://wwwcdn.imo.org/localresources/en/OurWork/Security/Documents/Resolution%20A.584(14).pdf

Inter Parliamentary Conference on Tourism. (1989, April 14). The Hague Declaration on Tourism. https://www.univeur.org/cuebc/downloads/PDF%20carte/68.%20The%20Hague.PDF  

Ivanova, D. (2014a). Piracy is not a historical memory, but is a fact that flourishing. Mytna Sprava, 5(95), 71-76.

Ivanova, D. (2014b). The application of “public order” in international private law. The Ukrainian experience. Mytna Sprava, 6(96), 86-92.

Kanashevsky, V.A. (2009). International private law. Mezhdunar. otnosh. [in Russian].

Kontorovich, E. (2015). Economic Dealings with Occupied Territories. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 53, 584–637.

Kormych, B., Averochkina, T., & Gaverskyi, V. (2020). The Ukrainian Public Administration of Territorial Seas: A European Example. European Energy and Environmental Law Review, 29, 2, 26–38.

Kormych, A., & Zavalniuk, V. (2020). Eastern Partnership Association Agreements in the Mirror of Global Ungovernance: Where Does the DCFTA Lead? Lex Portus, 6, 35–58. DOI: 10.26886/2524-101X.6.2020.2

Levontin, A. (1976). Choice of Law and Conflict of Laws. A.W. Sijthoff.

Mills, A. (2008) The Dimensions of Public Policy in Private International Law. Journal of Private International Law, 4, 2, 201–236. DOI: 10.1080/17536235.2008.11424339

Nishitani, Y. (2016). Party Autonomy in Contemporary Private International Law – The Hague Principles on Choice of Law and East Asia. Japanese Yearbook of International Law, 59, 300-344.

Paiano, A., Tiziana Crovella, T., & Lagioia, G. (2020). Managing sustainable practices in cruise tourism: the assessment of carbon footprint and waste of water and beverage packaging. Tourism Management, 77. DOI: 10.1016/ j.tourman.2019.104016

Parliament of Austria (1978, June 15). On the Private International Law: Austrian Federal Law (No. 304/1978). https://pravo.hse.ru/intprilaw/doc/040101 [in Russian].

Parliament of Germany. (1896, August 18). Introductory Law to the German Civil Code. https://pravo.hse.ru/intprilaw/doc/040401 [in Russian].

Parliament of Germany. (1877, January 30). German Civil Procedure Code. https://sud.gov.kz/sites/default/files/zpo_1.pdf [in Russian].

Parliament of Poland. (1965, November 12). On the Private International Law: Law of the Republic of Poland (No. 46 poz. 290). https://pravo.hse.ru/intprilaw/doc/041101 [in Russian].

Parliament of Romania. (1992, September 22). Law on the Regulation of the Private International Law Relations: Law of the Republic of Romania (No. 105). https://pravo.hse.ru/intprilaw/doc/041301 [in Russian].

Presidium of the Hungarian People’s Republic. (1979, May 11). On the Private International Law: Decree (No. 13). https://pravo.hse.ru/intprilaw/doc/040301 [in Russian].

Romaniuk, P.V. (2015) (ed.). Constitution of the French Republic (adopted in a referendum on October 4, 1958): as amended on August 30, 2015. Pravo [in Ukrainian].

The France’s National Constituent Assembly. (1789, August 26). Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. https://www.open.edu/openlearn/ocw/pluginfile.php/612270/mod_resource/content/1/rightsofman.pdf  

The Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation. (2013, February 26). Review of the practice of arbitral tribunals on the application of the public order clause as grounds for refusal to recognize and to enforce a foreign court and arbitral judgements: Information Letter (No. 156). http://www.cisg.ru/dok/ip-vs-2013-156.pdf  [in Russian].

The Supreme Court of Ukraine. (1999, December 24). On the practice of consideration by the courts of petitions on recognition and execution of judgements of foreign courts and arbitrations and on the cancellation of decisions, delivered in the order of international commercial arbitration on the territory of Ukraine: Resolution (No. 12). https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/v0012700-99#Text  [in Ukrainian].

Tihomirov, Ju.A. (2005). General Administrative Law and Process Course. K.I. Tikhomirov Publishing House. [in Russian]. (1982, December 10). Convention on the Law of the Sea. https://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf

UN General Assembly. (1985, December 9). 40/61. Measures to prevent international terrorism which endangers or takes innocent human lives or jeopardizes fundamental freedoms and study of the underlying causes of those forms of terrorism and acts of violence which He in misery, frustration, grievance and despair and which cause some people to sacrifice human lives, including their own, in an attempt to effect radical changes. https://unispal.un.org/unispal.nsf/5ba47a5c6cef541b802563e000493b8c/2f6ff235ada9974b85256dcc006c00a2?OpenDocument

Van Hooydonk, E. (2014). Towards a Worldwide Restatement of the General Principles of Maritime Law. The Journal of International Maritime Law, 20, 170–182.

Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. (2003, January 16). Civil Code of Ukraine. https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/435-15#Text [in Ukrainian].

Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. (2005, June 23). On Private International Law: Law of Ukraine (No. 2709-IV). https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2709-15#Text [in Ukrainian].

Yerpyleva, N.Ju. (2015). International private law. Publishing house of High School of Economy. [in Russian].

Zvekov, V.P., & Vlasova, N.V. (2011). Public order clause. In N.I. Marysheva (ed.). Private international law. (3rd ed., pp. 100–107). Legal firm “Kontrakt”; Wolters Kluwer. [in Russian].


Адреса редакції

м. Одеса, Україна
Фонтанська дорога, 23
Національний університет «Одеська юридична академія»,
Кафедра морського та митного права