Monday, 29 November 2021

Joanna Siekiera*

New Zealand – China FTA: Trade Growth amid Social Changes

Full text PDF [EN]

Suggested citation:

Siekiera, J. (2021). New Zealand – China FTA: Trade Growth amid Social Changes. Lex Portus, 7(4), 7-27. https://doi.org/10.26886/2524-101X.7.4.2021.1

*Doctor of Public Policy, International Lawyer at the Faculty of Law, member of the Bergen Pacific Studies Research Group at the University of Bergen (Magnus Lagabøtesplass 1, 5020 Bergen, Norway)

 

ABSTRACT

Many legal and business mechanisms were introduced by the government in Wellington in order to enable trade practices of the Chinese partners. Asian immigrants to New Zealand do fill the real gap in the small labour market of Aotearoa by providing highly qualified and hard-working workers. As a consequence, almost every area of New Zealand’s social and economic life is subject to changes. This phenomenon of such new and unexpected demographic situation has been portrayed by coining a new name for the country a few years ago – Niu Chiland. In fact, the only ethnic group in New Zealand that increases every year is the Chinese. Although, according to official data, there are only 5% of Chinese in the society of almost 5 million people, the real data is much larger. In Auckland, the country’s largest city and its business capital, having population of over 1.5 million, every fourth resident is of Chinese origin. The Free Trade Agreement turned out to be a breakthrough, as Wellington was the first capital among developed Western countries that decided to legally bind itself with the People’s Republic of China in 2008. In 2021, China and New Zealand signed the Protocol to amend the New Zealand-China agreement and to add some previously not taken into consideration spheres, such as e-commerce and environment. While New Zealand economy clearly shows benefits of trade with China, and anyhow sees any potential negative effects, like political dependence from this communist state not respecting human rights, between the politicians in Canberra and Beijing there continue to escalate tensions. Australia, contrary to New Zealand, is trying to contain Chinese imperialist’s appetite and stop Beijing before launching own sphere of interest in the Pacific region.

The key words: New Zealand, China, trade, international trade, Chinese migration, Chinese minority, Pacific, South Pacific.

 

REFERENCES

Baker, N. (2015). New Zealand and Australia in Pacific Regionalism. In G. Fry & S. Tarte (Eds.). The New Pacific Diplomacy. (pp. 137–148). ANU Press.

Best place to start or run a business – New Zealand second only to Singapore. (2015, December 21). RSM. https://www.rsm.global/newzealand/news/best-place-start-or-run-business-new-zealand-second-only-singapore

Central Intelligence Agency. (2021, July). New Zealand. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/new-zealand/#people-and-society

China Briefing. (2021, February 11). China-New Zealand FTA Upgrade: Reduced Costs and Compliance for NZ Exporters. https://www.china-briefing.com/news/china-new-zealand-fta-upgrade-reduced-costs-and-compliance-for-nz-exporters

China Chamber of Commerce in New Zealand. http://www.cccnz.org.nz

Kayani, F.N. (2021). China’s Mushrooming Free Trade Agreements: New Zealand and China’s Upgraded Free Trade Agreement. WSEAS Transactions on Business and Economics, 18, 884–893. DOI: 10.37394/23207.2021.18.84

King, M. (2012). The Penguin History of New Zealand. London.

Lawn, P.A., & Clarke, M. (2008). Sustainable Welfare in the Asia-Pacific: Studies Using the Genuine Progress Indicator. Bodmin.

Lei, Y. (2021, July 27). NZ trade growth with China should give Australia pause for thought. Global Times. https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202107/1229776.shtml

Marceddu, M.L. (2018). Implementing Transparency and Public Participation in FTA Negotiations: Are the Times a-Changin’? Journal of International Economic Law, 21, 3, 681–702. DOI:10.1093/jiel/jgy034

Mitchell, L. (2009). Maori and Welfare, A Study of Maori Economic and Social Progress from May 2009.

Morgan, W. (2018). Much lost, little gained? Contemporary trade agreements in the pacific Islands. Journal of Pacific History, 53, 3, 268–2863. DOI: 10.1080/00223344.2018.1475832

New Zealand ASEAN Business Alliance. https://nzaba.asia/contact

New Zealand China Trade Association. http://www.nzcta.co.nz/

New Zealand is best place to do business but UK slips to ninth – report. (2018). The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2018/oct/31/new-zealand-is-best-place-to-do-business-but-uk-slips-to-ninth-report-world-bank

New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2018). New Zealand- China FTA overview. https://www.mfat.govt.nz/br/trade/free-trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements-in-force/nz-china-free-trade-agreement/new-zealand-china-fta-overview

New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2019). Key facts on New Zealand-China trade. https://www.mfat.govt.nz/br/trade/free-trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements-in-force/nz-china-free-trade-agreement/key-facts-on-new-zealand-china-trade

New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2021). New Zealand – China Free Trade Agreement Upgrade. https://www.mfat.govt.nz/br/trade/free-trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements-concluded-but-not-in-force/nz-china-free-trade-agreement-upgrade/overview

New Zealand. Regional Trade Agreements Database. (2021). World Trade Organization. http://rtais.wto.org/UI/PublicMaintainRTAHome.aspx

New Zealand Statistics Office. (2018). https://www.stats.govt.nz/tools/2018-census-ethnic-group-summaries/chinese

New Zealand Statistics Office. (2013). How accurate are population estimates and projections? An evaluation of Statistics New Zealand population estimates and projections, 1996–2013. https://www.stats.govt.nz/methods/how-accurate-are-population-estimates-and-projections based on the unavailable website: http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/population/estimates_and_projections/subnational-ethnic-population-projections/asian.aspx

New Zealand Statistics Office. (2015, March). New Zealand in Profile 2015: An overview of New Zealand’s people, economy, and environment. http://datainfoplus.stats.govt.nz/Item/nz.govt.stats/7079024d-6231-4fc4-824f-dd8515d33141?_ga=2.64638887.96830192.1629650570-977847432.1629650570

Nwokoro, J. (2021). 9 Best Cities in New Zealand to Start a Business. Profitable Venture. https://www.profitableventure.com/cities-new-zealand-start-business

Open Database Of The Corporate World. https://opencorporates.com/companies/ nz/1194427 based on the formerly existing website http://www.nzcdgroup.com

Parliament of New Zealand. (1987, April 21). Immigration Act (No. 74). http://www.nzlii.org/nz/legis/hist_act/ia19871987n74165/

Parliament of New Zealand. (2009, October 16). Immigration Act (No 51). https://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2009/0051/latest/whole.html

Siekiera, J. (2017). Partnerstwo tasmańskie – zarys relacji Australii z Nową Zelandią [Tasmanian partnership – an outline of Australia’s relations with New Zealand]. In A. Kandzia-Poździał, & J. Siekiera (Eds.). Australia w XX i XX w.: Polityka, historia i kultura [Australia in the 20th and 20th Centuries: Politics, History and Culture] (pp. 57–77). WUŚ. [in Polish].

Siekiera, J. (2020). Regional integration in the South Pacific: Challenges for public governance. Brazilian Journal of International Law, 17, 1, 433–442. DOI: 10.5102/RDI.V17I1.6641

Tan, L., & Singh, H. (2015, March 9). Asian Auckland: How our city has changed – Explore our interactive. NZ Herald. https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/asian-auckland-how-our-city-has-changed-explore-our-interactive/YZBPN7LM7BI2IJIWIWIYTBADOE/

The State-Parties. (2018, March 8). Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). https://www.dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/in-force/cptpp/official-documents

Wright, G. (2015, November 12). Best Countries for Doing Business. Global Finance. https://www.gfmag.com/global-data/economic-data/best-countries-doing-business?page=1#axzz2pLxScd9K

.

Editorial Board Address

Ukraine, Odesa, Fontanska Doroga, 23
National University “Odessa Academy of Law”,
Department of Maritime and Customs Law

fb

info@lexportus.net.ua